Many previous civilizations use bitumen widely, for example, around 4-5 centuries BC, Achaemenians also used bitumen for sealing in Persepolis. The beginning of the modern bitumen industry can be traced back to 1712 when natural bitumen stones were discovered in France, which were generally produced by pulverizing and heating these stones.
What is bitumen?
bitumen A hydrocarbon compound with a dark brown-black color in solid, semi-solid or viscous forms, with adhesive properties, of natural or refinery origin, mainly containing high molecular weight hydrocarbons.
This material is completely soluble in carbon disulfide (CS2), trichloroethylene (C2HCL3) and xylene (C6H4(CH2)3). Its vapor pressure is negligible at ambient temperature and in this case it is almost odorless. The most abundant and widely used type of bitumen is petroleum bitumen, which is physically a homogeneous substance and chemically a heterogeneous mixture of different chemical compounds. This hydrocarbon mixture generally contains 90% of carbon and hydrogen atoms and the rest, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen and small amounts of metals, nickel, iron, magnesium, etc. Bitumen is a material in terms of behavior At ambient temperature, it has neither the behavior of an elastic material nor a viscous material, but the behavior of bitumen includes a combination of these two states that’s mean viscoelastic.