Bitumen history

Many previous civilizations use bitumen widely, for example, around 4-5 centuries BC, Achaemenians also used bitumen for sealing in Persepolis. The beginning of the modern bitumen industry can be traced back to 1712 when natural bitumen stones were discovered in France, which were generally produced by pulverizing and heating these stones.


What is bitumen?

bitumen A hydrocarbon compound with a dark brown-black color in solid, semi-solid or viscous forms, with adhesive properties, of natural or refinery origin, mainly containing high molecular weight hydrocarbons.

This material is completely soluble in carbon disulfide (CS2), trichloroethylene (C2HCL3) and xylene (C6H4(CH2)3). Its vapor pressure is negligible at ambient temperature and in this case it is almost odorless. The most abundant and widely used type of bitumen is petroleum bitumen, which is physically a homogeneous substance and chemically a heterogeneous mixture of different chemical compounds. This hydrocarbon mixture generally contains 90% of carbon and hydrogen atoms and the rest, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen and small amounts of metals, nickel, iron, magnesium, etc. Bitumen is a material in terms of behavior At ambient temperature, it has neither the behavior of an elastic material nor a viscous material, but the behavior of bitumen includes a combination of these two states  that’s mean  viscoelastic.

bitumen application

Bitumen is usually used in two areas: road construction and insulation, about 90% of the bitumen production is used in road construction, and insulation accounts for only 10% of bitumen consumption, which consists of: roofing, underground pipes, metal protection, as well as sealing, tanks, canals, bridges, stabilization of flowing sand, painting, etc.

Bitumen production process

Oil samples are prepared by two methods: straight run and air blowing. The aeration method is used when the raw material of bitumen (feed) does not have the expected characteristics. In this case, by blowing air into the raw material (feed) at a temperature between 190-200 degrees Celsius, a product with modified properties is produced. In this process, polymerization and dehydrogenation are done, and oxygen will not be introduced into the aerated product, except in very small quantities. In the aeration industry, it is done in two ways: continuous process and batch process

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